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Table 3 Correlation of staging with recommended treatment for rectal cancer

From: The role of endoscopic ultrasound in the evaluation of rectal cancer

EUS STAGE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STAGING THERAPY
UT1 Invasion of mucosa and submucosa Excision
UT2 Invasion of tumor into the muscularis propia Excision
UT3 Invasion of tumor through the serosa Pre-op chemoradiotherapy → resection of tumor
UT4 Invasion of tumor into adjacent organs Pre-op chemoradiotherapy → resection of tumor → post-op chemotherapy